Home Photography Lessons Beginner Photographic Lenses

Photographic Lenses

Understanding Camera Lenses

Since optical designs of photographic lenses (wide angle to telephoto) differ so radically we will not go into detail about optics. This lesson will cover a basic understanding of lenses and some good tips on lens use and care. Lenses are designed to refract (bend) light rays. Here is a basic convex lens (crude drawing below). Notice that this bends the light towards the center of the film plane. A magnifying glass is a basic convex lens.

Convex Lens
A concave lens bends the light away from the center. In modern camera lenses, you will find a variety of these lenses with some individual elements oddly shaped.

concave lens illustartion

Below is a cutaway illustration of a typical camera lens. Notice the different shapes of the elements. The science of optical design has become quite sophisticated and as it has progressed we, the photographers, have benefited with sharper, faster, lenses with greater color purity.

Photographic Lenses

How a lens works

Depth of field is a term we use in dealing with the sharpness of objects in our field of view. We know the subject we focused on will be sharp, but what about objects in front of, and behind? We control the sharpness of those objects by using the aperture which is built inside each lens.


The aperture is used primarily for controlling the exposure (the lesson on Exposure follows this page, be patient) but it also controls the depth of field (depth of sharpness would have been a better term). Words cannot explain this as well as visuals so take a look below at how different aperture settings can control the sharpness of objects in front of, and behind, the subject you are focusing on:

Aperture and hoses

I like to think of the aperture as a hose and how far the hose will reach if it is covered or not. If the lens aperture is “wide open” ,like a hose that you don’t cover the end at all, the depth of field is very shallow or the hose doesn’t spray very far… notice how the runner (below) is sharp and the other players are out of focus.

However, if you close the aperture all the way down, or cover the end of the hose so the water can only escape through a small hole, objects in front of, and behind, will appear much sharper (see below).

aperture wide open girl kicking soccer ball

By keeping the aperture wide open, we have a shallow depth-of-field giving the girl playing soccer a “3D” look.

aperture closed down family portrait
If you close the aperture down, you get a larger depth-of-field so all of your subjects are in focus and the runner gets lost in the image.

Tips On Lenses

Now to some other tips on lenses:

  • UV FILTERS – We always use a UV filter in front of the lens (instead of bothering with lens caps). The filter protects the lens and blocks out unwanted, hazy UV light.
  • LENS CLEANING – The glass used in photo lenses is covered with a coating (to correct some color problems) therefore, you should be very careful when cleaning the lens. We suggest that you not use lens cleaning fluids, rather a gentle blowing (your breath has moisture) followed by a gentle wiping with a clean, soft cloth or lint-free napkin. If the lens is seriously smudged then put a drop of lens cleaning fluid on the cloth and gently wipe. DO NOT apply lens cleaning fluid directly onto the lens… the fluid could get into the edges and destroy the adhesive that keeps the element attached to the barrel.
  • COLD WEATHER – Don’t bring a lens in from extreme cold … the moisture inside will instantly freeze up the whole lens. It is best to carry the camera under your winter coat when not in use.
  • HOLDING CAMERA – When making photos you should make sure the lens is in the palm of your hand, freeing up the fingers to focus. This takes the pressure of the lens mount AND provides for more steadiness. When using a telephoto lens you should also tuck your elbow into your side … which offers you more camera support (i.e., less shake).
  • CARRYING CAMERA – When carrying the camera on your shoulder (using the strap) the lens should point inward to protect the glass and keep it from banging into other things … like little people. You’ll find that the camera is now positioned in such a way that when you reach for it, it will go into your hand easier and feel more natural.
  • FILTERS – There are numerous filters out there, some designed to correct color/light problems … others add special effects. We will discuss three basic filters (which you probably should have).
  • UV/HAZE filter: It cuts out ultra-violet light rays. Although invisible to the naked eye, ultra-violet rays give bluish tint and haziness in color photographs. UV/HAZE filters make the picture clearer. This filter does not block enough light to cause you to make an exposure compensation, therefore it is should be kept on the lens at all times to protect the lens surface.
  • POLARIZING filter: This filter subdues undesired reflections from non-metallic surfaces such as water, windows, etc. When used in color photography it will darken blue sky by blocking atmospheric haze. By eliminating that haze skies will be bluer, red objects will be redder …. in fact all colors will be much more saturated and true.
  • CLOSEUP filters: These are simple lenses that, when attached to the front of your lens, will allow you to focus much closer … allowing you to make full-frame images of very small objects. The more powerful the closeup filter, the more you will have to “open up” the lens, because these filters do “absorb” some of the light rays. The filter should come with instructions that will tell you how much exposure compensation you should make. If not, simply experiment … AND take notes.

Next we need to look at EXPOSURE CONTROL.

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  1. Wonderful breakdown of aperture. Oftentimes, I have avoided using that particular setting due to a lack of understanding what it actually did. Sharpness? Who would have thought. Thanks!

  2. I didn’t know there was so much to photography…….All I knew was look and shoot..Wana thank u much about making it as simple as possible. Im missing lesson #1 & #2.. how can I get these 2.. thanks in advance

  3. Thank you for your course! I am enjoying it but would get so much more out of it if the illustrations showed up. I have tried different browsers and settings and still see nothing except the text. Suggestions?

  4. Does a lens hood replace the need for protection offered by a UV filter? I have heard it is better not to have the extra layer of glass and a lens hood is a better option. Thoughts?

  5. Couldn’t help but notice one thing. I havent seen many photographers since the beginning of 2000 with shoulder straps on their cameras. Do they still make large straps like that? And these lessons are EXACTLY what I’ve been looking for to start into photography! Thank you so much.

  6. Wow” I am a beginner with lots of equipment for I love photograph and am so excited about all the things to be learned. I am so looking forward to accessing all the great knowledge you are spreading through this site. Thanks so much.

  7. Lesson 3 and I’ve learned so much! And, now, after five decades of being a point and shoot kinda person, I know why my photos weren’t very good. Can’t wait to actually start clicking.

  8. Bought my Fujifilm S4250WM DSLR last year and still learning its features. The last time I took any type of photography course was back in High School (1972-73), then again in the military (1974 – I was a Photo Repairman, not a photographer).
    I used to own 2 different 35mm film SLR’s (Ricoh KR-5 & Canon TLB) and one 35mm film TLR (Yashica Electro 35).
    This course is helping me to bit-by-bit re-learn some things, but so far, nothing specific to my new camera.

  9. I am enjoying this course on Photography and the questions and answers are a big help. I recently purchased a Nikon D3000 from a pawnshop with a lens of 55-200m. I have been taking some great photos by accident, this course has helped already improve my photo taking. I would love one day to film weddings, years ago I did this for free with out a clue about photography and with out the right camera. This is also how I came up with the name Phuntography.com which will be out soon. Please enlighten me on this lens and camera if possible.

  10. This as help out and understand this lesson. I was also wondering when it comes to filters. I have new used when it comes to taking photos. I had other conversations about filters and they have said it was just a way to cheat?

  11. Just started reading and learning, wow I’m impressed and it’s fun. I hope to become a great photographer when finished.

  12. Just found your site and your lessons are quite handy.They are easy to understand,i enjoyed how light goes through prism lesson.i am not a science student and i found the whole thing quite interesting.i tried the prism and light did indeed seperate into spectrum of colors.its a whole new experience for me.i believe by the end of this course i would have turned into photography instructor(LAUGHS). Thank you very much,you guys are wonderful.

  13. Just found this website and would like to say thanks!
    You’ve got all the information I was looking for, but in an easier way to understand!
    This lesson was amazing! BTW I do have a Canon 700D.
    Cheers from Down Under

  14. I just beginning, and do have an I, but I’m confused about the best lenses to use for action shots, portrait, and nature. Can you help get started with the right lens. I have a Canon T 4i.

  15. I guess everything has been said in previous entries but honestly, going through this site,i feel more motivated to pursue my photography hobby.you guys are simply inspiring and thumbs up to you.
    plan to get a D3000 SLR for starters.

  16. Hi i was just wondering if you could put some pitures up of the fliters being fitted to the camera? thanks

  17. Field of depth was best explained to me in this way: Picture 2 windows. one in front of the other. I will use text icons to draw a pic. 0 = camera, s = subject, $ = out of focus, ( = first window, ) = second window
    0–$$$$(sssssss)$$$$$$$ or
    0–$$$$$$$$$( s )$$$$$$$$ or
    0-( s )$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ or
    0–$$( sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss )$$

  18. Nick P, the answer is yes. Notice in the second pic, the vikings player is actually in better focus than the eagles player that is closer to the camera. On the other side i would point out that if all players are fuzzy, what would be the subject of the photo. To me the story told by this photo is about a QB about to get sacked, hence the two players being in focus. Had the camera man focus solely on the QB it may have told me that the pass was going to be thrown and i may have never noticed the viking player.

  19. Lesson on aperture the easiest to follow ever! I really enjoyed the illustrations, I was able to whip my camera out and make sense out of Aperture settings almost instantly

    Thanks much

  20. I am sure this is a newbie question. But you said that aperature controls depth-of-field and exposure. You demonstrated how we can fuzzy the background and emphasize the foreground player along with bringing the background players into the same focus as the foreground player, thus crowding the photo-emphasis. Conversly, could we push the foreground player into the background group and make all of them fuzzy using the aperature?

  21. I am a beginner with a Canon EOS Rebel T4i. I am enjoying your on line course very much. I would like to get a telephoto or macro lens mainly for some portrait shooting and perhaps some landscape. I do not want to spend a ton of money until I get the hang of it all. Is there a lens that you can suggest? I know someone selling a canon EF 75 300 f/4-5.6 for 100.00 new…but I have read some ” not so good” comments on this lens….I would love your suggestions. Thanks so much!!

  22. Thanks so much for your time and effort to teach people, most grateful. Please can you recommend any camera for me? I am a beginner.

  23. Very good one. You have the deep knowledge and teaching abilities.
    very useful for the beginners. Thanks to your efforts.

  24. i am really happy i’m learning so much so fast. But aren’t lens caps protective enough? Some photographers use them. I am yet to buy a camera which would u recomend for a beginner like me?

  25. I am really enjoying those lessons. They are helping understanding some of the essntials in photography. Thank you.

  26. Ah, the mystery of the f-stop, has been made clear, and what it really does, simply amazing that the gordian knot of photography is slowly, and so wonderfully being untangled. Looking forward to more wonderment. Thank you

  27. Love the site, it is teaching me so much. I have just been bought a Fuji Finepix S4400. Can filters be attached to the lens? Also would there be 1 thing you would purchase to get the most from this camera?

  28. I just wanted to THANK YOU for sharing your knowledge with us on your website and for doing so in such a philantropic way. I am totally new to photography and I was a bit scared of the terminology but you has made it so easy to understand that I am learning a lot. You are a great teacher and a noble person!

    Thanks again!

  29. I am not a professional photographer I just have a kodak easyshare C1550 and these lessons so far have helped me so much! Especially the lesson on Exsposure. I enjoy taking alot of nature photos and when I was taking pictures of yellow flowers it wasnt well defined – the yellow mixed together and you couldnt tell what you are looking at. Right after I read that lesson I hurried outside to try again after adjusting my IOS and Exposure. It worked! Thank you so much for these lessons!

  30. I have been a Professional for over 17 years, and this website is still helping me to rebuff and reacquaint myself with things I have forgotten over the years. I love how you have the images to help make everything more understandable! You guys are great!

  31. Great tutorials, I am hooked! Very new in photogoraphy, and can’t wait to improve my skills after reading more of your lessons!
    I didn’t know what aperture is and how it makes differentce, it is so helpful I found your website


  32. Thank you for this valuable information. I have learned a lot I didn’t know. Very easy to understand.

  33. wow. thanks so much. what a wonderful site you have given to us. For a time i was so confused about photography i didn’t even know what to ask or who. your style is so easy to understand. give yourself a really big pat on the back. thank you.

  34. I have a canon t2i and purchased the lensebaby lenses.Do you have you any thoughts that might be helpful seen it as away to play more with setting up the camera instead work with the preset.

  35. With each you’ll be able to “zoom in” the same amount. With a 35-200mm you’ll be able to zoom out more and have what you would call a “normal” zoom. 70mm is still telephoto so you’ll have a lot more choices of how to frame a shot with a 35-200mm.

  36. Hello,
    Love this site, it provided me enough knowledge to talk about photography. I started reading all the topics and decided to get a DSLR for my self and start my new hobby. I was wonderign what are the essential lenses needed for a beginner like me and can you explain me what is the difference between 70-200mm and 35-200mm ?

    Thank you,
    Hemanth Kolla

  37. I want to get the UV filter and the Polorizing filter but I don’t know what I need. I have 2 lenses that came with my Nikon camera. One is a 18mm-55mm and the other is 55mm-200mm. Is there just one filter of each type that will work with each of these lenses?

    I love this site!! I am just learning photography, and this is very helpful.

  38. According to my friends I’m a natural, but there is more to just taking a pretty picture and this site is giving me a better understanding not only how to take an awesome shot, but more about my camera. Helping me achieve my goal in honing my skills 🙂 awesome page!

  39. Wow, after a solid year of practicing and playing around with settings to get the desired picture I’ve wanted…in 30mins on this site, I’m finally on my way. Just about everything i’ve previously read; I’ve read here, but what I’ve read here has the clarity of terminology with illustrations; that has made all the difference. It was like trying to learn the english language without the vowels; then you gave me the vowels. Thanks a million.

  40. Using a close up filer to shoot macro photography is an easy alternative to getting a primary lens just for those close up macro shots. They’re eventually a magnifying glass at the end of your lens. Just don’t go burning ants with your close up filter 🙂

  41. when photographing insects is it helpful to use a close up filter? I am shooting with a Nikon D300s and still trying to learn everything after moving up from a Nikon D40. And thanks for all the great info I feel as though Im going to be getting alot from these courses!

  42. I recently purchased a Nikon coolpix P300 and it has a lot of features I’m not familiar with but it’s far from the DSLR’s most folks here mention. Will I be able to progress in your course without a better camera?

  43. Unfortunately the camera companies keep as little as possible in the box. When picking a filter you mostly just need to make sure it’s the right size to fit on you’re lens. In you’re case you’ll be looking for 58mm filters.

  44. This Course is simply AMAZING!!!! I love it I wanted to start lessons but I couldn’t do to work schedule but this photography course is very helpful I don’t feel like I am a complete ignorant, I bought a Canon EOS REBEL T3 – EOS 1100 D and I would like to know if it comes with filters and if it doesn’t wich ones would you recommend?

  45. Thanks for the tip with the cleaning fluid. I used to spray it directly onto the lense. Hope I have not yet damaged it 🙁

  46. Are the UV/Haze and Polarizing filters only for SLRs? Or can they be bought for point and shoots (nikon coolpix L120)?

  47. Thank you for the invaluable information so far. Easy to follow, easy to understand . I felt I had to comment at this early stage. Took me 3 minutes to totally understand aperture and what the adjustments do. Taking AS photography , 2 year course , started 2 months ago . Many thanks . Guess you will hear from me again.

  48. So from what I understand, filters for digital cameras are only for effect?? Learning a lot from these lessons.

  49. @janae The filters don’t come with camera’s, and digital cameras don’t really need UV filters. The filters are sold for the purpose of protecting the lens you purchased. They are a transparent lens cap. If you are careful with your lenses you don’t really need them for protection and they just get in the way of you and your subject.

  50. It sounds like you were saying lenses come with a UV filter nowadays? If they do, is that why my pictures are so blurry? I used to clean my lens now and again with cleaning fluid– did that remove some of the filter? Or is the filter a separate thing that you put on top of the lens? And if so, what is my problem in the dirtiness of my pictures? I’ve cleaned it the right way, and it’s still smudgy.

  51. This is great, I am so glad I found your website. I am learning alot. Thank you so much for making this website available..I can’t wait to see what I will turn out in images, once I have completed the lessons. Again thank you!

  52. Great Site for a refresher. I’m just got my first DSLR, but not my first SLR, I’m
    moving up from a Minolta XD11 35 mm, to a Sony Alpha A55. I want to find an adapter so I can use my Vivitar Series 1 70-210 f2.8 MD mount. I know it wont auto focus but I should be able to use it as a manual focus lens, hopefully in manual and Aperture and shutter priority modes.


  53. This site is great. I’m just getting back into photography after a few years away and this site is helping a lot. It helps refresh and clarify info I knew but either forgot or had trouble getting straight in my head in the first place.

  54. Thank you, thank you, thank you. I just spent a weekend in a National Geographic Photo Workshop that was basically go and shoot and then get critiqued. Very little technical information. Your lessons are much better. Wish I had seen them before I sent a check to Nat Geo.

  55. A UV Haze filter wouldn’t be necessary indoors. It would just block a small amount of light, so it would be hurting more than helping indoors with artificial lighting.

  56. Regarding the three filters you recommend we must have, especially the UV Haze filter to protect the lens. Will the use of any one of these filters not be recommended indoors under artificial lighting, or could the UV Haze filter be used indoors and outdoors?

    Thank you.

  57. Polarization filters are mostly just used to protect your lens. The technology is also used in sunglasses and reduces glare, but the polarization filter won’t dim light like your sunglasses, it will remove haze and make skies clearer. It could also be that your auto white balance settings on the camera are minimizing the effects of the filter. If you switch to daylight white balance, you should see more of an effect.

  58. I’ve bought a polarization filter (Hoya), but I don’t see much difference… I see pictures on the internet in which you just look through the filter and twist it and see a lot of change. I only see a tiny bit of difference when looking at a really shiny object. Maybe I have to wait for better weather, with lots of sunshine and blue skies?

  59. If you install a close up filter it could be that combined with the particular lens the camera just can’t focus. It’s probably moving back and forth desperately trying to. You’ll want to make sure your camera is set to macro so that it can plan on things being very close. I’d have to see what you were doing to really know how to help you.

  60. I just bought a close up filter from HOYA for my zoom lens 18-55 mm SONY ALPHA. When i mount it on the lens , both auto& manual focus does not work.I wonder if i can use the filter on a fixed focal lens instead of a zoom lens. Please give me advice about this matter. Thank you very much.

  61. Thanks for giving us information about lenses ..

    I really had new information about it and useful one.

    but I hope you give us specific information about specific cameras.

    like canon SX30..

  62. Thanks so much for explaining the whole filter thing. I do have a UV filter. Not that I truly understood why, not I do. Next I do want to get the polarizing filter. Can you put them both on and does it matter about the order or is that even an option?

  63. Wow!! Thanks for the site. I just received a Rebel T2i for christmas and have never had anything other than a “point and shoot” type. After five minutes with the camera, I was dissappointed and overwhelmed, thinking I would never be able to understand the camera at all. Your lessons have been clear and concise enough for me to follow. I am now looking forward to taking pictures and making lists for all the “goodies” I need to go with my new toy! Thanks so much!!

  64. Thanks for the explanation of what the “f-numbers” are for. I have an OLD Pentax SLR, and I thought the only thing that the numbers were for was to limit the amount of light that came in – if it was bright, you went to the higher numbers so the picture wasn’t “white.”

    But to learn now that it’s actual function is for depth of field…WOW!

    Looking forward to continuing on…

  65. THANK YOU!!!
    I now understand!! the photography classes i’ve taken in the past NEVER went over ANY of this!!! go figure i was lost! but now i’m found thanks to you!!!! 8)

  66. this site has cleared up some questions I had. I have a Canon Rebel SX with a 18-55 zoom lens focusing care F stop and ISO speed. I’m trying to understand so I’m at this site to get the basics to get started again now back to trying this camera

  67. WoW! I am still a beginner photographer, I’ve owned a Nikon D40x, D80 and just purchased a D300s, which unlike the first two does not have an automatic mode, I still mostly photograph with the D80 in Auto mode but your site is the first I have found to speak in simplistic terms, I actually have a better understand of what Aperture is now! Thank you so much! I hope to be able to use my D300s more often as I go along this course and am able to apply what I’m learning!

  68. Thank you so much for this site. I’ve always loved taking photos but just recently purchased my first SLR in May of this year. I have no desire to make photography anything more than a hobby but I’ve always been a ‘point & shoot’ kind of gal. I want to learn more so I can correct the errors that I’m currently having. ‘Guessing’ how things operate is no longer working. 🙂

    Thanks again!

  69. I have a Nikon D40X and I have been asked to do some hotel room photography for their website. Problem is the rooms are very tiny, these are just old hotels that have been recently renovated, and I can’t get enough of the room in the shot. I currently have the 55-200mm 1:4-5.6G ED lens. I don’t know much about lenses at all. Can you please tell me what lens I will need to do this job.

  70. I have gotten through this stage of the course. A great course especially to pass time in Iraq. I have a 18-55mm lens and was looking for the filters that you suggested (UV, Polarized), I found some on amazon however they had one for an 18mm and another for the 55mm. Which one should I get to cover the ranges of my lens? I mostly shoot Landscape photos and family photos.

  71. You use the lens that fits you’re needs. If you want to get close to the action use a telephoto lens with a length of 200 or so. If you want a fish eye lens you use a fish get a lens with a much smaller focal length. Zoom Lenses are always helpful as you can quickly change the focal length.

  72. nothing as good as this experience am having on your site..trust me am going to learn more all the way..thanks a lot.

  73. It would be good to know what is meant by f2.8 or f8. Right now, I only understand that smaller the number , larger the aperture or the camera opening , which lets in the light.

    Also, physically why is it that there is less depth of field when aperture is larger?

    Thank you !

  74. This website is FABULOUS! I finally have a clarity on what aperture is and the purpose of different filters. I started with lesson 1 and will continue until the end. Thanks for such great and FREE information!

  75. WOw this is so helpful. NOw i know what a polorized filter is.. wished i knew about it earlier because i took a picture from my hotel room and all it did was bouce back from the window and i saw my reflection in it.. i even tried it with the flash off and that didnt work either.. Really good to know.. Thanks!

  76. Mini, you’ve got a special camera that is not 100% point and shoot and not 100% DSLR. Canon has some accessories and filters that will work specifically with this camera. I wouldn’t say they will prove the picture quality but they will expand the capabilities of the camera by using accessories such as the tele converter or Conversion Lens Adapter. Filters will be just like the one’s described here, only sized for your camera.

  77. recently i bought a canon powershot g10. i believe extra lenses can be added to it.. if yes then how would it improve the picture quality.. is it needed?

    thank u for the great course for beginners. i started today and already feeling enlightened.

  78. UV filters reduce the haze and the fogginess of outdoor light, however their most common use is as a protection for lenses because their effect is undetectable in most situations. By putting a UV filter on your lens, it takes the scratches and little bumps, so if you need to replace it, you are replacing a $10 filter and not a several hundred dollar lens.

    The Polarizing filters effects are much more stark. As you know, when you put on a pair of sunglasses that have polarizing lenses, everything becomes clearer and cleaner because the light that is bouncing off the shiny things is removed. Polarizing filters are most useful when photographing snow, water, bright sunlight, etc. Be aware that when you use a polarizing filter you are reducing the light to your sensor/film and increasing the contrast, so you might have to adjust if you don’t have enough light.

    So, yes, you can stack a UV filter on a polarizing filter for photographing water. The both have different effects on the image, and both are helpful in reducing the glare and light bounce when you are photographing highly reflective subjects. The result should give you more detail in your image and less “hot” (overexposed) spots. Just leave your UV filter on all the time to protect your lens.

  79. So if you were taking a picture of someone outside say at a garden with water falls or fountains you would stack the uv filter and the polarized filter at the same time? What effect would that have on your photo?

  80. Courses are great… I’ve just bought a digital camera but I don’t think it’s a good one (costs $200), it’s a Samsung with a Samsung lens (18.6mm) My questions are:

    How much can I do with that camera?
    How important are mm in the lens quality?
    Is it possible to use any filter with the camera?

    Anyway, my grandmother has an old russian very good camera with a big lens (I will ask for information about it in the future)… But I’d like to know how useful my new cheap camera is.
    Thank you!!

  81. I have a small digital camera. I bought it for like $80 at Walgreens. Does it come with these “lenses” built in? I’m so confused about this. Was I supposed to go out and buy one of the expensive cameras?

  82. Nicole, each lens has a diameter in mm. If it is the right size it will work on your canon. For filters it typically makes littler difference what price you pay. One of the reasons we like Amazon is because they give customer ratings so you know the value of the product you are buying. Just search for the filter you’re looking for with the diameter in mm’s and you’ll find what you’re looking for.

  83. After reading this section I have decided to buy at least a UV/haze filter and maybe a polorized filter, but am overwhelmed with options. can you give some input on size/brand? Will the “cheaper” brand give me the same results and will they work on my canon lens?

  84. I just discovered this website and I’m amazed, I’ve been taking some good pictures that my friends find really amazing on facebook (they even ask if I am a pro photographer lol, but honestly I think I was blessed that my pics come out nice without even know what I’m doing, my best teacher was always the try and error thing but now I know what aperture means and I have taken some test photos and I am so happy…….. I am ready for more….. THANK YOU 😀

  85. these lessons are really informative and seem simple especially with tha visual things….great job…..i am really glad i found this one…thanks!

  86. I very much enjoy all the visual aids you include. They are that much more helpful in understanding the material. I’m a new member and a beginning photographer, but I’m really enjoying the site so far! Best one I’ve found!

  87. this lesson really “taught me alot”
    these are the strong basics which are badly needed because
    if the foundation is strong building never collapse

  88. You can stack filters, and use multiple filters at a time. It all depends on the effect your trying to achieve. One reason to stack filters would be to take a picture of a fountain on a sunny day, restricting the light coming into the camera and allowing you to use a slower shutter speed for a more interesting photo.

  89. i agree with Tisha, thanks. ( seem to be saying that every section)The phrase “depth of sharpness” made everything come into focus. Also appreciated the explanation on filters.

  90. After all these years of feeling really confused and not understanding what aperture is, I feel very enlightened and confident now!



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